Mario Pagliaro. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Mario Pagliaro, Email: ti. Corresponding author. Received Mar 5; Revised Mar Abstract Approaching the end of the second decade of the 21 st century, almost the whole demand of vanillin is met by the synthetic product obtained either via a petrochemical process starting from phenol and glyoxylic acid or from energy intensive alkaline oxidative depolymerization of lignin.
Keywords: vanillin, Silia Sun , vanillic acid, vanilla, photocatalysis. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Scheme 1.
Scheme 2. Figure 2. A Feasible Technology? Conflict of interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Acknowledgements This study is dedicated to Professor Leonardo Palmisano, University of Palermo, for all he has done in the course of the last thirty years — to establish a world's class photocatalysis school in Sicily. Notes R. References 1. Gobley N. Buccellato, Vanilla in Perfumery and Beverage Flavors. Havkin-Frenkel, F. Belanger Eds. Tomadoni B. Food Sci. Tiemann F. Havkin-Frenkel D. Bomgardner M. News , 94 , 38— Fache M. Ciriminna R.
Banerjee G. Food Agric.
Pagliaro, Isr. DOI: Gasson M. Russell, Narbad A.
Lindsay H. Kumar N. Gopalan N. Luque R. H, Sustain. Lin F. Rouhi A. Maureen, Chem. News , 81 , Jadhav D. It has a long blade, staright on one side, jagged on the other. The tool has two wooden handles, one for each hand. The right hand stays stationary 'loosely' to allow a swiveling action. There is also a wire wrapped around the haft. View Full Record Bucksaw Inside the cracks on the wooden portion of the saw, the original red paint is visible.
There are no manufacturer markings present The scythe has the usual distinctive features of other corn reaping scythes from the era with a cradle rib a View Full Record Can, Milk Highly rusted milk can, with "Frink Cry" and under that "Larkspur Colo. The can has two handles, as well as a lid that was previously stuck due to rust damage. The lid itself also has a handle. The bottom View Full Record Rake, Garden The rake handle is sapling size, ending in a twig reinforced rake portion holding 5 dowel prongs, a sixth prong is missing View Full Record Planter, Potato Great condition, original paint and logo present.
North St. Paul, Minn.
It's all p View Full Record Hames Collar Fine thong or wang stitching appears on the widest edge of the leather collar View Full Record Hobble The other clamp is larger with a slight bend just before the keyhole shaped opening for the chain link fastener which is a View Full Record Bit Straight concave bar with rings on either end. Rings have spatula-like extensions.
It has light rusty steel metal with metal or bluing showing in a few places Two 2 separate mouth pieces parallel to each other, looped at the ends. Each mouth piece attached at one end to the large rein ring and at the other end to a small outer ring. Rein rings have spatula-like extensions and multiple View Full Record Planter, Hand View Full Record Drill, Rock One pipe is capped, the other is open and threaded. No maker's mark visible View Full Record Label July Metal is rusted and in poor condition with some wording obscured by rust.
Brand inside top cup View Full Record Shard, Glass Some embossed lettering but not enough to identify positively. Seamed, embossed lip This is one portion of the mechanism. Original identification from Richard Carillo. Tiny holes in base. Folded lip, small pedestal base, no handle Curved bottom, folded ends, one edge is folded and has holes along the edge. Two-strand wire with two-point wire barb. Barb is looped to provide attachment for warning devices.
Patented December 5, by Curtis B. Brainard of Joliet, Ill View Full Record Camera Two 2 other parts are separate pieces.
The camera is connected to the dryer. The dryer has a trough for fluid, a motor, and a canvas roller and drum. View Full Record Plate, Dry This part has a glass plate attached to a long rubber mat, like a conveyor belt. It has two 2 doors on the front of the lower cabinet. View Full Record Washer, Print Basin for process photocopies. It sits on a stand and has piping for fluid and a drain pipe. It is slightly slanted toward the drain. It had a removable pan and places on each corner to install something at different heights One of the side rings is soldered or welded closed with a broken metal piece on the outside welded to the ring Two 2 U-shaped clamps with two 2 holes for attaching two 2 U-shaped fasteners that attach the chain links to the clamps on either end.
The chain link is shortened at one end. View Full Record Pasteurizer, Milk White canister with lid.
Lid has a round red top that may come off but is stuck, two metal handles, and a electric cord. The bucket has a red rectangular control box on one side consisting of a white and View Full Record Machine, Adding Typical commercially available stabilizers of these types are supplied by Ciba-Geigy under the tradenames Irganox and Irganox Useful secondary stabilizers include phosphites, such as tris- p-nonylphenyl -phosphite TNPP and bis 2,4-di-tert-butylphenyI 4,4'-diphenylene-diphosphonite and di- stearyl-3,3'-thiodipropionate DSTDP.
Stabilizer s can represent from 0,1 to about 2,5, preferably from about 0. These waxes also are used to reduce the blocking of the composition without effecting the temperature performance. An other group of waxes are synthetic waxes made by polymerizing carbon monoxide and hydrogen such as Fischer-Tropsch wax; and polyolefin waxes. As used herein, the term "polyolefin wax" refers to those polymeric or long-chain entities comprised of olefinic monomer units. These materials are commercially available from Eastman Chemical Co. As should be understood, each of these wax diluents is solid at room temperature.
Other useful substances include hydrogenated animal, fish and vegetable fats and oils such as hydrogenated tallow, lard, soya oil, cottonseed oil, castor oil, menhadin oil, cod liver oil, etc. These hydrogenated materials are often referred to in the adhesives industry as "animal or vegetable waxes. Preferably, the hotmelt pressure sensitive adhesive compositions of the present invention comprise:. A minimal amount of thermal and mechanical energy should be employed to manufacture the adhesive. The determination of such amounts are well within the purview of one skilled in the art.
This step usually requires two to three hours. The vacuum is then broken with nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas to prevent air entrapment in the adhesive. The finished adhesive is then packed and cooled quickly for shipment to the manufacturer of the pressure sensitive tapes Velcro fasteners or similar articles.
Said manufacturer then re-melts the hot melt adhesive for use as the pressure sensitive adhesives of said articles. The application of the hot melt construction adhesives may be accomplished by several applications systems depending on the type of article being made and the substrates involved.
These application systems may involve spiral spray techniques, multi-line extrusion, multi-dot extrusion, and melt blown deposition. The adhesives produced by the teachings of the present invention can be applied by any of the aforementioned techniques in the manufacture of consumer articles, and wherein the adhesive is bonding a polyolefin or nonwoven substrate to at least one elastic, polyolefin, foam, or nonwoven substrate. This invention can be further illustrated by the following examples of the preferred embodiments thereof, although it will be understood that these examples are included only for illustration and comparison to the existing art, and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention unless specifically indicated.
All the amounts of the compositions are parts, by weight, unless indicated otherwise. Once this blend was homogenous, the tackyfing resin was added slowly until a uniform clear mixture was obtained. The resulting pressure sensitive films of adhesive tapes where then tested with respect to peel adhesion, performance under UV-exposure, loop tack according to PSTC and static shear according to PSTC 7.
The results are summarized in the attached tables. Table From the comparative examples above it can be clearly seen, that compositions, containing blends of SIS and SEBS do not have the necessary adhesion properties initial peel adhesion, initial loop tack and static shear strength , to meet even initial end use requirements. The adhesives were tested for their initial adhesive properties and for their properties after hrs. Although the initial adhesive values of comparative adhesive 12 are good, the results show clearly, that these adhesive fail totally after UN exposure, whereas the adhesives according to the present invention retain there adhesive power even after long UN exposure.
Kind code of ref document : A1. Ref country code : JP. Country of ref document : JP. Preferred applications of these adhesives include UV-resistant, non staining removable pressure sensitive tapes or pressure sensitive a hook-and-loop type fasteners.
A Hot Melt Pressure Sensitive Adhesive composition according to any of the preceeding claims whereby the plasticizer c is selected from paraffinic hydrocarbon oils, PIB Poly-isobutylene or PoIybutene oils. A Hot Melt Pressure Sensitive Adhesive composition according to any of the preceeding claims whereby the hydrogenated tackifying resin d is selected from hydrogenated gycerol or pentaerthrytol esters of wood rosin, tall oil rosin or gum rosin.
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A Hot Melt Pressure Sensitive Adhesive composition according to any of the preceeding claims whereby the resin e is selected from the group of hydrogenated C 5 toC 9 hydrocarbon resins, coumarone or coumarone indene resins or petroleum resins. A pressure sensitive adhesive tape made by coating the tape substrate with a hot melt composition according to to any of the proceeding claims. A pressure sensitive adhesive tape according to claim 6, characterised in that the tape substrate is transparent or translucent.