Tim Jenkins was the person, who in investigating Mississippi legal codes, discovered the statute that allowed residents to cast protest votes.
Jenkins later played an important role in lobbying for the Voting Rights Act of They taught young Blacks that they could have a future. The impact that those schools had on their local communities was the important legacy of SNCC. She offers new insights into the internal dynamics of SNCC as well as the workings of the larger civil rights and Black Power movement of which it was a part.
As Hogan chronicles, the members of SNCC created some of the civil rights movement's boldest experiments in freedom, including the sit-ins of , the rejuvenated Freedom Rides of , and grassroots democracy projects in Georgia and Mississippi. She highlights several key players--including Charles Sherrod, Bob Moses, and Fannie Lou Hamer--as innovators of grassroots activism and democratic practice. Breaking new ground, Hogan shows how SNCC laid the foundation for the emergence of the New Left and created new definitions of political leadership during the civil rights and Vietnam eras.
She traces the ways other social movements--such as Black Power, women's liberation, and the antiwar movement--adapted practices developed within SNCC to apply to their particular causes.
Many Minds, One Heart ultimately reframes the movement and asks us to look anew at where America stands on justice and equality today. Evans, Personal Politics , pp. Martin's Press, , p. Ransby, Ella Baker , pp. She argues that because culture is "constitutive of interests and identities" in social movements and not merely background , culture creates "new actors and interests in contention" within social movements and "familiar, routinized practices [become] problematic.
Driskell, "Amzie Moore," See Charles M. See Marshall, Student Activism , , for a map of Mississippi congressional districts, and pp. Hayden, "Fields of Blue," p.
How did the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee break open the caste system in the American South between and ? In this innovative study, Wesley Hogan explores what SNCC accomplished and, more important, how it fostered significant social change in such a short time. SNCC's Dream for a New America Many Minds, One Heart ultimately reframes the movement and asks us to look anew at where America stands on justice.
For the risks that white women volunteers encountered even when assigned to library work, see Sally Belfrage, Freedom Summer New York: Viking, , pp. Robnett, How Long? Robnett and others have made valuable contributions by emphasizing Black women's contributions to SNCC. Robnett's notion of Black women acting informally as "bridges" from communities to organizations has illuminated their power.
Yet scholarly treatment of women in SNCC has been complicated by a tendency to dichotomize categories that could be understood as overlapping--especially sexism and opportunity, and the experience of white women and Black women. For example, Robnett in How Long? An alternative is Wesley Hogan, Many Minds, One Heart , which views opportunities and limitations as overlapping categories, quoting Casey Hayden that the Waveland Memo was part of the "questioning and pushing back of limits in which we were engaged at all levels," p.
Holsaert, et al, eds. Women were sometimes appointed SNCC project heads when men no longer wanted the job.
O'Neal later taught elementary school in Springfield, Ohio for twenty-nine years and literature classes at Wilberforce University for nine years. See also Francoise N. Dorothy I. Franklin, eds.
Debbie Z. When the commission began to respond positively to Height's suggestion that aiding Black men in access to better employment would shift some of the burden away from women in Black families, Undersecretary of Labor Daniel P.
Moynihan intervened and killed the possibility. See Daniel P. Moynihan, "Memorandum to Mrs. Peterson," 26 March , also in Blaine and Sklar. Moynihan then advanced his political career in by authoring a Department of Labor report, later called "the Moynihan Report," which claimed that problems in Black families were not due to the need for better employment of Black men but due to a Ghetto pathology that was cultural. See Freedman, Redefining Rape. Houck and David E. Dixon, eds. For Nash's leadership in , see Ibid.
Doris A. Hayden remembers equipping Literacy House before Mary King arrived, but King describes in great and different detail equipping the house with Hayden. Freedom Song , See Ruth T.
King, Freedom Song , , , King, Freedom Song , p.