un hombre con un solo riñon puede tener hijos However, no significant differences were found in the learning process between the ischemic and IUGR groups.
Independently of the experimental group, CI values above 1. WB analyses revealed that in both trained and untrained animals the total amount of PSD95 protein was significantly reduced in the hippocampus of IUGR animals compared to the control and ischemic groups. In contrast, PSD95 protein content tended to increase, albeit not significantly, in ischemic animals. A significant reduction was also found in the total amount of synaptophysin protein in the hippocampus of untrained IUGR animals compared to the control and ischemic groups.
The main findings of this study suggest that neurodevelopmental alterations affect males and females similarly and are not only associated with BW but also with an abnormally high CI and altered synaptic machinery in the hippocampus. IUGR fetuses develop some hemodynamic adaptations during fetal life, redistributing blood flow to vital organs such as the heart and brain.
Read Infant Memory: Its Relation to Normal and Pathological Memory in Humans and Other Animals (Advances in the Study of Communication and Affect) book. Infant Memory: Its Relation to Normal and Pathological Memory in Humans and Other Animals. Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. Edition. ISBN
In these babies, the size of the head is relatively spared with respect to the growth of the body, resulting in an abnormally high CI. To understand the correlation between learning deficits and the morphological, cellular and molecular alterations developed in IUGR patients, many animal models have been developed. Rodents mice, rats, and guinea pigs are the most commonly used animal models to asses alterations associated with IUGR due to the high number of functional tests available that allow the evaluation of neurological outcome.
Schacter, D. Cerebral Cortex, 20, Gilbert works at the intersection of social psychology and cognitive psychology, with a focus on the way in which cognitive biases regarding the projected impact of individual choices on happiness affective forecasting may have wide-ranging societal and political implications. Savignac et. Kremin, H. Paris: Serdi Publisher.
To our knowledge, this modified version of the CI using the brain weight has not been used in other animal models. Despite the different BWs, the two CMO groups showed a significantly higher CI at birth and a lower growth velocity compared to controls thereby reflecting the absence of catch up. The brain sparing effect observed in CMO pups at birth higher CI was maintained throughout postnatal development, at least until day In general, learning curves were slightly different between males and females, although both genders achieved similar final scores according to their experimental group.
IUGR and ischemic animals of both sexes needed more time to learn the same task than their respective controls, and although their performance improved over time, their final scores remained slightly lower.
Although further studies and a systematic anthropometric analysis of individuals are needed to address this question, a recent systematic review of animal models that used uterine artery ligation to induce IUGR reached similar conclusions. Moreover, the functional alterations described in CMO animals in this study are in line with those described by Leitner and colleagues in a cohort of IUGR babies. Moreover, a high CI value could also be useful as a marker of increased risk of cognitive and neurobehavioral deficits.
Spatial memory plays an important role in the consolidation of learning and is a major part of what is known as explicit memory or conscious memory of events that have occurred in the external world.
Therefore, it is possible that exercise inherent to water maze training might account for the synaptophysin normalization in IUGR rats after training such as what was observed in this study, and suggests that environmental management might reverse some of the synaptic changes associated with prenatal growth restriction postnatally. In this study, a murine model was used to determine part of the biological mechanisms of learning and memory disorders related to IUGR.
Although interspecific differences in fetal response to placental insufficiency need to be addressed, the translation of these data to humans suggests that in addition to severely affected IUGR babies, babies with a normal BW but with intrauterine Doppler alterations or clinical indices of placental insufficiency and an abnormal CI as in the ischemic group in this study should also be closely followed up during their first years of life.
The CI is a simple easy measurement to standardize. We are grateful to Joanne Ferrier for editorial assistance. Volume 7 , Issue 3.
The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Brain and Behavior Volume 7, Issue 3. Juan A. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article.
Abstract Introduction Intrauterine growth restriction IUGR is the failure of the fetus to achieve its inherent growth potential, and it has frequently been associated with neurodevelopmental problems in childhood. Results Placental insufficiency in CMO pups was associated with spatial memory deficits, which are correlated with a CI above the normal range.
Conclusions The results of this study suggest that learning disabilities may be associated with altered development of excitatory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Brain weight P2 g 0. IUGR, Intrauterine growth restriction. In the table, Birth weight , brain weight and cephalitzation index at day two is presented. Each group belongs to at least two different mothers. Brain weight g at day 35 1.
Cephalization index at day 35 1.
In the table evolution of some antthropometrical parameters is presented. Each group belongs to at least to three different litters. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Learning progression and correlation between escape latency and the cephalization index CI. Error bars in a and b represent the standard error of the mean. Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Hippocampus histology. Coronal hippocampal sections of control a, d, g, ischemic b, e, h and Intrauterine growth restriction IUGR c, f, i rats at P Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
Distribution of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. Actin was used as the protein loading control. Abel, J. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience , 31 , — Crossref PubMed Google Scholar.
Google Scholar. Citing Literature. Then go to step 5.
The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness is the first of its kind in the field, and its appearance marks a unique time in the history of intellectual inquiry on the topic. After decades during which consciousness was considered beyond the scope of legitimate…. Paperback sold out.
Hardcover sold out. Kobo ebook. Available for download Not available in stores. Divided into four parts, the first section of this book deals with levels of processing and memory theory, the second addresses working memory and attention, the third deals with cognitive aging, and the last addresses neuroscience perspectives.
In stock online Not available in stores.