frasnysetsijob.cf/fiz-spiare-iphone.php In Memory of Piero Villaggio. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction This book provides an overview of state of the art research in the mechanics of masonry structures. Editors and affiliations. Associazione Edoardo Benvenuto Genova Italy 2. Kim Williams Books Torino Italy. Buy options. Q: I brought in some soil this spring to level a few low spots in the lawn and planted grass seed.
Now I'm plagued with crabgrass. What can I do about it? A: Roger Cook replies: Life would be so easy if only we could settle for crabgrass-covered lawns. Here's the problem. When you plant grass in the spring, any crabgrass seed that's around—and there's plenty of it—will germinate and outcompete your delicate grass seedlings, particularly in a sunny location. That's why I prefer to plant grass in the fall, when crabgrass won't fight you. Grass seedlings love the cool, wet conditions, and by the end of the growing season you'll have a reasonable stand of grass. Then, in the spring, apply a pre-emergent weed control that will stop any crabgrass seeds from germinating.
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Q: I spent last year spraying the yard with a herbicide to get rid of a large crop of weeds — mostly Bermuda grass. Now that I'm ready to plant, the weeds have gotten worse in the backyard. I sprayed the whole yard equally, let the weeds die, tilled the yard under, waited for the regrowth, and repeated the actions. Why is there a massive regrowth in the back yard but not the front?
It is still, however, the sign Cancer, as before. You are free to edit,. In current times, what will be our deluge? So far it lives up well to its advertisement. Was there hidden meaning in their unique symbols or were they drawn for practical purposes? This is because a lot of questions appear in prelims as well as later on in GS 2 for mains and it has a lot of overlap with almost all the 4 GS papers.
And what can I do to get rid of the weeds once and for all? A: Roger Cook replies: It may be that your back yard is sunnier than the front and promotes more growth. Or there is a greater source for the weed seeds in the back yard than the front. Identifying the weeds may also help you discover the problem.
With some grasses, if they are not completely dead when you rotate, every little piece can send out new growth. If the weeds are blowing in you may be able to identify the source and eliminate them. Covering the back yard with plastic will keep the weeds from regenerating, but plastic is unsightly. Weed barrier may be a better solution. Another option is to get a covering on the ground: mulch, grass, and ground cover will all provide competition for the weeds. Also the timing of your spraying is critical. Here in New England spraying in June and July knocks down the weeds before they set seeds.
The end of August and early September is the perfect time to roto-till and install a lawn. Q: Two years ago, after some trees were removed at the front of our house, the stump holes were filled with compost and seeded with grass. This year, along with the grass, we have tiny mushrooms that pop up in great profusion after it rains. Can we get rid of them without killing our lawn? A: Roger Cook replies: When you removed the stumps, you probably left behind most of the roots—and a lot of ground-up stump. That all serves as food for the network of underground fungi from which mushrooms sprout. And you probably lavished water on the new grass, didn't you?
Bingo, the perfect conditions for growing a bumper crop of mushrooms. That doesn't get rid of the underground fungus, but it stops spores from being released. Just be aware, you might be in for a lot of digging. Q: Can I just mow down the mushrooms that crop up in abundance in my lawn after it rains?
A: Roger Cook replies: Absolutely. These are just the fruiting bodies of fungi that are working in your soil. They will decompose after you mow them but probably reappear again after heavy rain. Q: When we moved into our house, we had a lot of bamboo growing on a hill beside a river. Every spring the bamboo shoots up and I have to cut it down weekly. Is there anything I can do to get rid of the bamboo permanently? A: Roger Cook replies: Too bad you can't hire a panda to do this job. They happily eat up to 35 pounds of bamboo a day.
But with pandas in short supply, the only practical way to get rid of bamboo is to keep cutting it down to ground level or spray it with an herbicide, or both. A small chainsaw will make short work of the mature stalks. Follow up with a weekly trim using a lawn mower.
Also, keep an eye out for shoots beyond the perimeter of the grove; some bamboos will send underground runners, called rhizomes, up to 25 feet from their base. By next season, hopefully, your bamboo will be gone. If you decide to use chemicals on your bamboo, glyphosate-based herbicides are usually effective. Be sure to follow the instructions exactly: They kill any plant they come in contact with, and you don't want them to reach the river. One approach I've found to be effective is to let the bamboo shoots grow to 2 or 3 feet in early spring, then spray them with herbicide.
Then every time a new shoot reaches that height, spray again. Here's another option to consider: Rather than eliminate your grove entirely, cut it back to a manageable size, then contain it with a physical barrier. One off-the-shelf product uses thick interlocking polyethylene sheets buried about 3 feet in the ground.
Containment systems do require vigilance because rhizomes will try to grow over the barrier.
If any of them succeed, you'll need to remove them. By the way, not all bamboo is such a headache. A: Roger Cook replies: There are several moss killers on the market that you can apply to the lawn. These work for the short term, but moss will return. Moss is an indication of an acidic lawn or too much shade on the lawn. Do a soil test on the lawn and apply lime to reduce the lawn's acidity. To reduce shading, check trees around the area and prune or remove them as needed. For more on the soil-testing kit shown here, see How to Seed a Lawn. Q: We have what the neighborhood nurseries call "creeping Charlie" growing all over our lawn.
We've tried pulling it out, digging it up, reseeding, overseeding, cutting the grass short, and leaving the grass long. Nothing seems to work. A: Roger Cook replies: Creeping Charlie, also called ground ivy or gill-over-the-ground, is a perennial and a highly invasive evergreen weed of the mint family. It loves conditions that grass doesn't: shade, and soil that's wet, acidic, or compacted. So if you see this weed, it's a message that your lawn needs help. Chemical weed killers might get rid of it, but unless you change the conditions that encourage this pest, it'll just come right back.
Get a soil test and add the nutrients or minerals that are missing. Prune or remove adjacent trees to admit more light. Reduce sources of excess water, such as runoff; don't overwater the grass; and run a core aerator over it in the fall to reduce compaction. After aerating, spread a mixture of compost and sand over the grass so that the soil will drain better. If you reseed a somewhat shady area, use a grass blend suitable for shade. And if you still have problems after all that, give up on grass and plant a noninvasive groundcover that's more to your liking.
Q: Last fall, after we moved to our new house, our dog ruined various areas of the lawn with her urine. How do I rehabilitate these dead spots and keep more from forming? A: Roger Cook replies: Dog urine contains a high concentration of nitrogen, which kills grass the same way too much fertilizer in one spot will "burn" a lawn.
To repair these burned areas, remove any clumps of dead grass and loosen the soil with a hand-held claw tool. Level the damaged area with fresh topsoil, sprinkle seed and rake it in lightly, then water frequently to encourage germination. If there are lots of spots that need reseeding, buy one of the lawn-repair products that combine seed, fertilizer, and cellulose mulch in one bag.
You can find them at pet stores and home centers. To prevent future spotting, you have a couple of choices: Either follow your dog around with a hose to dilute her urine or train her to go only in one area, which you've covered with a thick layer of wood chips, mulch, or gravel. That's what I would do if it were my dog. Q: We've been fighting gophers for the last three years.
They've eaten the roots of my plants, and I've tried every remedy I've ever heard of, including putting human hair in the tunnels. What can we do to win this war? A: Roger Cook replies: Look on the bright side — at least you won't have to aerate your lawn this year. Seriously, though, gophers are wily, destructive pests that throw up big mounds of earth willy-nilly across the landscape and destroy gardens and crops. Here's a quick overview of the remedies for these rodents, but check with your local extension service on specifics that suit your area.
First of all, stuffing things down a gopher hole, including hair or those so-called sonic repellents, just doesn't work. Neither does dynamite, as Bill Murray proved in the movie Caddyshack.
I recommend box traps, which are the simplest and easiest type of gopher trap to use. You plant them in a main tunnel, which lies about 6 to 12 inches below the surface. Find it by probing the ground around a mound on the side where you see a plug of fresh earth. Then, following the illustrated directions, dig down and set two traps with their open ends facing opposite directions into the tunnel. No bait is needed, but be sure to wear gloves when setting the traps. You don't want your scent to scare them away. If you prefer not to trap, stay away from the poisons that contain strychnine.
A poisoned gopher eaten by a cat, dog, or fox will poison that animal as well. Safer poisons use a bait laced with anticoagulants; internal bleeding kills the gopher painlessly, I'm told without endangering other animals. Just be sure to follow instructions for its safe use and disposal. I've read that gophers can't stand the smell of castor oil can't say I blame them and that spraying a diluted mix on the ground is enough to make them skedaddle.
There's also some evidence that gophers don't like mulch, so you could try mulching a buffer area around plantings. Or you could encourage predators to come feast on your rich gopher supply — installing owl boxes in a nearby woods might be a good start. Q: What can I do to get rid of the yellow jackets living in the ground around my house? A: Roger Cook replies: There are many kinds of wasps and bees that nest underground.
Most are beneficial, not aggressive, and valuable as pollinators. But if you are sure that you have yellow jackets, the following strategies might get rid of them. First, try flooding them with water in the evening, after they've returned to the nest. It may take several attempts over a period of days to drown them or encourage them to move elsewhere.
Or you could try covering each hole with plastic—again, in the early evening—and seal it against the ground with bricks or blocks for a few days. If that doesn't cook them or discourage them, you'll probably have to use an insecticide. There are many formulations of these chemicals, including some poison-free products such as mint oil. Availability varies from region to region, but you should find what you need at a garden center or home supply store. Dealing with white grubs, chinch bugs, or other such pests? Q: Lucy, our 2-year-old Doberman, is a wonderful dog, but by running around in our backyard she's killing what little grass we have.
I'd like a nice grass yard but don't know what to do. A: Roger Cook replies: Dogs will be dogs, and they do love to run. And if a dog is confined to one area, particularly if it's chained to a post or to a cable that allows the dog to move back and forth, lawn damage is unavoidable. In this case, forget trying to save the grass. Remove what's there and replace it with a wide swath of mulch or sand, contained with edging. These materials won't hurt a dog's feet, the way gravel or pea stone can, and they can easily be raked back into place as needed.
Artificial turf might also work, if the area isn't too large. I've installed it under backyard swingsets. It stands up to toddlers, so maybe it would work with Lucy. Another approach would be to use one of the porous paving systems designed to help grass withstand driveway and parking-lot traffic. These perforated plastic or masonry materials, which are strong enough to support cars and trucks, contain many holes that protect the grass and its roots from damage while allowing water to drain through.
Installing these systems requires some excavating, filling with a good mix of sand, compost, and loam , replanting with sod plugs , and waiting before the grass is strong enough. But once the lawn is established, it should be able to withstand Lucy. Just be sure to discuss your intentions with the manufacturer first. You don't want to install anything that will cut her feet. Q: I can't seem to get grass to grow well in a little patch between my front walk and the driveway, near a few pine trees.
Would I have better luck with sod? A: Roger Cook replies: Grass is grass, whether you grow it from seed or lay it out as sod. If the growing conditions aren't right, it won't survive. First of all, make sure the area gets at least five hours of sunlight a day. If the pines are blocking the sun, you could cut them down, but that's a drastic step given the size of your patch.
Or you could just forget the grass and plant a shade-loving ground cover, such as pachysandra, instead. If there is enough light, the soil probably needs help. Have it tested by your cooperative extension service and follow their recommendations about what nutrients or minerals to add. After you have the results, turn over the top 6 to 8 inches of soil, work in sand or compost if it's compacted, and use a shovel to thoroughly mix it.
Now spread lawn-starter fertilizer and the recommended additives, and rake them into the top layer of soil.
Only then should you seed or sod. The way I see it, you might as well put down sod. It won't cost much to cover your small area and you'll get some instant gratification for all your hard prep work.
Q: We live in an area with lots of trees, so my problem is moss growing in the lawn. When we tear it out, it always comes back. How do I get rid of it for good? A: Roger Cook replies: How much do you love your trees? Your yard is telling you that there's too much shade for grass to compete successfully against moss. If you really want a lawn there, either cut down some trees or prune them aggressively to let in more light. Also, test your soil. Moss loves acid soil, so you may need to add lime to "sweeten" it.
That will encourage grass and discourage moss. Here's another approach, if you can live with less lawn: In those areas where the moss is thickest, plant a shade garden, using shrubs, perennials, and ground covers that tolerate the existing conditions. In Howell v. Steffey, A. The claim was based on a cooperating brokers' agreement. The defense of illegality of this agreement under the Virginia real estate brokers licensing statute was rejected because the purpose of the statute was not violated, inasmuch "as the public is protected by the participation in the transaction of a licensed Virginia broker.
The plaintiff in Loader v. Scott Constr. The latter sought to justify nonpayment on the ground that the subcontractor did not have his own contractor's license when the work was done. Rejecting this defense, the court said:. Corondolet Realty Trust, S. Section reads:. We find no indication in the Act or in the Maryland cases that a policy of the Act is to protect general contractors from unlicensed subcontractors.
Consequently, the fact that the Act is a regulatory measure does not bar Alcoa from recovering on its subcontracts with Stalker. Cases of the type reviewed above are ones in which there is a licensing statute that carries civil or criminal penalties for noncompliance. Such statutes do not expressly state that the legislative intent is that contracts made in violation of the licensing requirement are to be declared void.
Students Int'l Mediation Soc. The Act in Maryland, however, contains an additional provision that is relevant to the issue before us. Section provides:. Section may be compared to the statute involved in Triple B Corp. The New Mexico licensing statute provided that. A similar statute barred suit by an unlicensed subcontractor against the contractor in Lewis and Queen v. Ball Sons, 48 Cal. The California statute read:. Section of the Act is considerably more flexible then the above-quoted enactments. It contemplates a situation in which the subcontractor was licensed at the time of contracting, but, in some fashion, loses the license before the work is completed.
Under those circumstances, the General Assembly made clear its intent that the unlicensed subcontractor must complete the work and does not forfeit payment for the work done. Section a contains a prohibition against paying an unlicensed contractor, but the plain language of that prohibition limits its operation to the time when payment under the subcontract is to be made. The General Assembly did not prohibit payment "unless.
Where the language of the statute is clear and unambiguous, we do not add words in an effort to extend the statute's meaning. See Walzer v. Osborne, Md. State, Md. See One Corvette v. Vieira, Md. It is not a reasonable construction of the statute to allow Stalker to withhold payment, now that Alcoa is licensed, on the ground that Alcoa previously was unlicensed when Stalker was violating the Act by making some payments during that period.
From the standpoint of the policy of the Act, it is clear that subcontractors are to be licensed. Section effects that policy by making a contractor part of the enforcement program. The requirement that contractors withhold payment until a subcontractor is licensed ferrets out, and causes to be licensed, otherwise unlicensed subcontractors and in that way furthers the Act's aim of protecting homeowners.
Accordingly, we shall reverse the judgment of the Circuit Court for Montgomery County and remand this action for further proceedings, not inconsistent with this opinion. Section b requires that, "[e]xcept as otherwise provided in this title, a person must have a subcontractor license or contractor license whenever the person acts as a subcontractor in the State.
Section b provides, subject to exceptions not applicable here, that "a person may not act or offer to act as a subcontractor in the State unless the person has a contractor license or subcontractor license. Listed below are the cases that are cited in this Featured Case. Click the citation to see the full text of the cited case. Citations are also linked in the body of the Featured Case. Listed below are those cases in which this Featured Case is cited.
Click on the case name to see the full text of the citing case. Home Browse Decisions A. Email Print Comments 0. March 31, Attorney s appearing for the Case Ruth S. John M. Seeberger, Baltimore, MD, for Appellees.